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Aujourd’hui — 15 septembre 2019Vos flux RSS

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Par sophie

12è anniversaire de l’entrée en application du Motu Proprio Summorum Pontificum

Par Summorum Pontificum
12è anniversaire de l’entrée en application du Motu Proprio Summorum Pontificum
Chers lecteurs de la rubrique Summorum Pontificum, Rendons grâce en ce 14 septembre 2019, fête de la Croix Glorieuse, pour le 12è anniversaire de l’entrée en application du Motu Proprio Summroum Pontificum le 14 septembre 2007. Prions pour le Pape émérite Benoît XVI qui avait publié cette lettre apostolique pour poursuivre la réconciliation de l’Eglise.…

Changement d’horaire à La Vallée et La Rochelle

Par Summorum Pontificum
Changement d’horaire à La Vallée et La Rochelle
Le site Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam, qui recense les messes en application du Motu Proprio Summorum Pontificum, nous informe du changement d’horaire des messes dominicales à La Vallée (Rochefort) et La Rochelle : A la chapelle Saint-Maurice de La Rochelle (150 avenue Carnot), les messes dominicales sont désormais célébrées à 18h30. A l’église paroissiale Saint-Vivien…
Hier — 14 septembre 2019Vos flux RSS

9 remèdes naturels contre les cernes

Par sophie

Vous en avez assez de voir votre regard marqué par des cernes ?

Les cernes touchent quasiment tout le monde à un moment donné de sa vie. Les causes sont multiples : génétique, vieillissement, allergies, stress, fatigue, tabac …

Comment faire disparaître les cernes ? Découvrez ces 9 remèdes de grand-mère pour prendre soin du contour de vos yeux.

Le cataplasme de pomme de terre

Râpez et écrasez une pomme de terre crue. Déposez cette mixture entre deux morceaux de coton. Déposez ce cataplasme sur vos cernes pendant 15 minutes. La pomme de terre à des agents de blanchiment qui réduiront naturellement vos cernes.

Le miel

Mélangez 1 c. à café de miel d’acacia avec 100 ml d’eau tiède. Imbibez deux cotons de ce mélange. Laissez poser sous vos yeux pendant environ 10 minutes. Rincez à l’eau claire.

Les sachets de thé vert

Lorsque vous buvez du thé vert avec vos amis, ne jetez plus vos sachets ! Laissez-les refroidir au réfrigérateur pendant 5 minutes. Placez ensuite un sachet sous chaque œil pendant 15 minutes, puis retirez-les. Ce soin naturel va atténuer les cernes.

Les cuillères congelées

La veille, mettez deux cuillères au réfrigérateur. Le lendemain, vous pourrez utiliser celles-ci pour mettre sous vos yeux.

Les glaçons

Prenez un tissu dans lequel vous mettrez deux glaçons. Passez-les sur vos paupières.

Un masque à gel pour les yeux

Mettez votre masque dans le congélateur. Placez celui-ci pendant 5 minutes sur vos yeux.

Le concombre

Les tranches de concombre sont utilisées depuis des siècles par nos grands-mères pour réduire les poches et les cernes sous les yeux. Coupez deux tranches de concombre, laissez-les refroidir pendant au moins 1 heure au réfrigérateur. Allongez-vous la tête légèrement surélevée et placez une tranche de concombre sur chaque œil pendant 10 à 15 minutes en gardant les yeux fermés.

Le marc de café

Mélangez dans un bol 1 c. à café de yaourt, 1 c. à café de marc de café ainsi que quelques gouttes de citron. Mettez votre préparation au réfrigérateur pendant plusieurs heures. Vous pouvez maintenant appliquer votre « anticernes maison » sous vos yeux. Laissez poser pendant 15 minutes, pus rincez.

Le lait

Imbibez deux compresses de lait. Laissez poser pendant 10 minutes sous les yeux.

Le JDBN vous recommande:

source – crédit photo: capture

Justacoté, la référence des bonnes adresses et les avis en France à découvrir

Par Communiqué

Justacoté est un site français et il est la référence des bonnes adresses de proximité en France et dans les Départements et Régions d’Outre-Mer.

Lire l'article sur POSITIVR

Écologie: La société Vollebak invente les t-shirts biodégradables

Par Alexandre Gras

La société Vollebak vient de concevoir et de commercialiser les premiers t-shirts biodégradables et compostables. La jeune société basée à Londres a trouvé le moyen de produire de façon durable et écologique des vêtements à partir de pâte de bois et d'algues. Le tissu est créé à partir d'eucalyptus et de hêtres. L'encre, elle, est entièrement composée d'algues, que les concepteurs cultivent dans un bioréacteur.

Cet article Écologie: La société Vollebak invente les t-shirts biodégradables est apparu en premier sur Pepsnews - Le site des news positives.

À partir d’avant-hierVos flux RSS

Delivering on Quantum Innovation

Par University of Maryland

The University of Maryland (UMD) has announced the launch of the Quantum Technology Center (QTC), which aims to translate quantum physics research into innovative technologies.

The center will capitalize on the university’s strong research programs and partnerships in quantum science and systems engineering, and pursue collaborations with industry and government labs to help take promising quantum advances from the lab to the marketplace. QTC will also train students in the development and application of quantum technologies to produce a workforce educated in quantum-related engineering.

The launch of QTC comes at a pivotal time when quantum science research is expanding beyond physics into materials science, engineering, computer science, chemistry, and biology. Scientists across these disciplines are looking for ways to exploit quantum physics to build powerful computers, develop secure communication networks, and improve sensing and imaging capabilities. In the future, quantum technology could also impact fields such as artificial intelligence, energy, and medicine.

Fearless vision

The rules of quantum physics cover the shockingly strange behaviors of atoms and smaller particles. Technologies based on the first century of quantum physics research are close at hand in your daily life—in your smartphone’s billions of transistors and GPS navigation, for instance.

Today more radical quantum technologies are moving toward commercial reality.

UMD has long been a powerhouse in quantum research and is now accelerating this trend with the launch of QTC. Founded jointly by UMD’s A. James Clark School of Engineering and College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences, QTC will translate quantum science to the marketplace.

“QTC will be a community that brings together different types of people and ideas to create new quantum technologies and train a new generation of quantum workforce,” says QTC founding Director Ronald Walsworth. “UMD will focus on developing these technologies in the early stages, and then translating them out to the wider world with diverse partners.”

Like UMD’s existing quantum research programs, QTC is expected to draw strong sponsorship from federal research agencies. National support for quantum research is on the upswing—most notably evidenced by the National Quantum Initiative, signed into law in December 2018, which authorizes $1.275 billion over five years for research. 

Quantum research on the rise

UMD already hosts more than 200 researchers in quantum science, one of the greatest concentrations in the world. Much of the effort has been led by the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) and Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science (QuICS), both partnerships between UMD and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. JQI and QuICS support many projects that cross boundaries in research disciplines and organizations; this trend will only increase with QTC on campus.

One prime example of constructively blurred lines comes from the research of Distinguished University Professor Chris Monroe. An international leader in isolating individual atoms for quantum computing and simulation, Monroe is a member of all three centers, and well-positioned to tap into the expertise of researchers in related disciplines. 

Professor Edo Waks and Associate Professor Mohammad Hafezi, both members of QTC and JQI, are also among the UMD researchers helping to form the next revolution of quantum research with groundbreaking work on devices for quantum information processing and quantum networks.

In one effort, Waks demonstrated the first single-photon transistor using a semiconductor chip. The device is compact; roughly one million of these new transistors could fit inside a single grain of salt. It is also fast and able to process 10 billion photonic qubits every second.

Mohammad Hafezi and team have created the first silicon chip that can reliably constrain light to its four corners. Image: E. Edwards/JQI.
Mohammad Hafezi and team have created the first silicon chip that can reliably constrain light to its four corners. Image: E. Edwards/JQI.

“Using our transistor, we should be able to perform quantum gates between photons,” says Waks. “Software running on a quantum computer would use a series of such operations to attain exponential speedup for certain computational problems.”

Hafezi studies the fundamental behaviors of light–matter interactions down to the single-photon level. He created the first silicon chip that can reliably constrain light to its four corners. The effect, which arises from interfering optical pathways, could eventually enable the creation of robust sources of quantum light.

“We have been developing integrated silicon photonic systems to realize ideas derived from topology in a physical system,” Hafezi says. “The fact that we use components compatible with current technology means that, if these systems are robust, they could possibly be translated into immediate applications.”

Grounding a quantum community

 “QTC will be a crucible for quantum science and engineering,” says Walsworth, a leader in quantum sensing who was recruited from Harvard University to lead the new center. “We’ll be building bridges between people, between sectors, between theories and technologies. There’s a kind of hunger for a community that pulls people together to pool information and find ways to overcome challenges in this exciting new area.”

According to Clark School Dean and Farvardin Professor Darryll Pines, UMD’s hiring of Walsworth signals an important next step in bringing engineering solutions to the forefront. “He’s the perfect representative to bridge the gap between physics and engineering, because he's already been doing that himself,” says Pines.

In addition to his broad range of research accomplishments, Walsworth has acted as an advisor for corporations and co-founded two companies based in part on his lab’s work. Quantum Diamond Technologies is developing applications in medical diagnostics for quantum measurement technologies that can be generated at room temperatures in synthetic diamonds. Hyperfine Research is creating low-cost portable MRI machines. 

“If you really want a new community of technology to flourish, you’ve got to have the applications right,” Walsworth adds. “You've got to be solving someone's problems. Some people are busy building their technologies, but they don’t always know what the technologies are good for. Other people are out there complaining about how they can't solve their problems, but they don't know what technology exists that might help.” 

Making the match will require QTC researchers to seek out groups across and outside the university to talk about actual challenges where quantum technology might help.

“From a United States perspective, this is a big deal,” he says. “Quantum is one of those areas that requires enormous investment from the federal government, to advance our knowledge in this space. We hope this leads to opportunities that translate to real products with positive impact for people, society, and the U.S. economy.”

Video Friday: Watch This Robot Dog Explore an Underground Tunnel Autonomously

Par Evan Ackerman

Video Friday is your weekly selection of awesome robotics videos, collected by your Automaton bloggers. We’ll also be posting a weekly calendar of upcoming robotics events for the next few months; here’s what we have so far (send us your events!):

IEEE Africon 2019 – September 25-27, 2019 – Accra, Ghana
RoboBusiness 2019 – October 1-3, 2019 – Santa Clara, CA, USA
ISRR 2019 – October 6-10, 2019 – Hanoi, Vietnam
Ro-Man 2019 – October 14-18, 2019 – New Delhi, India
Humanoids 2019 – October 15-17, 2019 – Toronto, Canada
ARSO 2019 – October 31-1, 2019 – Beijing, China
ROSCon 2019 – October 31-1, 2019 – Macau
IROS 2019 – November 4-8, 2019 – Macau

Let us know if you have suggestions for next week, and enjoy today’s videos.


Team PLUTO (University of Pennsylvania, Ghost Robotics, and Exyn Technologies) put together this video giving us a robot’s-eye-view (or whatever they happen to be using for eyes) of the DARPA Subterranean Challenge tunnel circuits.

[ PLUTO ]


Zhifeng Huang has been improving his jet-stepping humanoid robot, which features new hardware and the ability to take larger and more complex steps.

This video reported the last progress of an ongoing project utilizing ducted-fan propulsion system to improve humanoid robot’s ability in stepping over large ditches. The landing point of the robot’s swing foot can be not only forward but also side direction. With keeping quasi-static balance, the robot was able to step over a ditch with 450mm in width (up to 97% of the robot’s leg’s length) in 3D stepping.

[ Paper ]

Thanks Zhifeng!


These underacuated hands from Matei Ciocarlie’s lab at Columbia are magically able to reconfigure themselves to grasp different object types with just one or two motors.

[ Paper ] via [ ROAM Lab ]


This is one reason we should pursue not “autonomous cars” but “fully autonomous cars” that never require humans to take over. We can’t be trusted.

During our early days as the Google self-driving car project, we invited some employees to test our vehicles on their commutes and weekend trips. What we were testing at the time was similar to the highway driver assist features that are now available on cars today, where the car takes over the boring parts of the driving, but if something outside its ability occurs, the driver has to take over immediately.

What we saw was that our testers put too much trust in that technology. They were doing things like texting, applying makeup, and even falling asleep that made it clear they would not be ready to take over driving if the vehicle asked them to. This is why we believe that nothing short of full autonomy will do.

[ Waymo ]


Buddy is a DIY and fetchingly minimalist social robot (of sorts) that will be coming to Kickstarter this month.

We have created a new arduino kit. His name is Buddy. He is a DIY social robot to serve as a replacement for Jibo, Cozmo, or any of the other bots that are no longer available. Fully 3D printed and supported he adds much more to our series of Arduino STEM robotics kits.

Buddy is able to look around and map his surroundings and react to changes within them. He can be surprised and he will always have a unique reaction to changes. The kit can be built very easily in less than an hour. It is even robust enough to take the abuse that kids can give it in a classroom.

[ Littlebots ]


The android Mindar, based on the Buddhist deity of mercy, preaches sermons at Kodaiji temple in Kyoto, and its human colleagues predict that with artificial intelligence it could one day acquire unlimited wisdom. Developed at a cost of almost $1 million (¥106 million) in a joint project between the Zen temple and robotics professor Hiroshi Ishiguro, the robot teaches about compassion and the dangers of desire, anger and ego.

[ Japan Times ]


I’m not sure whether it’s the sound or what, but this thing scares me for some reason.

[ BIRL ]


This gripper uses magnets as a sort of adjustable spring for dynamic stiffness control, which seems pretty clever.

[ Buffalo ]


What a package of medicine sees while being flown by drone from a hospital to a remote clinic in the Dominican Republic. The drone flew 11 km horizontally and 800 meters vertically, and I can’t even imagine what it would take to make that drive.

[ WeRobotics ]


My first ride in a fully autonomous car was at Stanford in 2009. I vividly remember getting in the back seat of a descendant of Junior, and watching the steering wheel turn by itself as the car executed a perfect parking maneuver. Ten years later, it’s still fun to watch other people have that experience.

[ Waymo ]


Flirtey, the pioneer of the commercial drone delivery industry, has unveiled the much-anticipated first video of its next-generation delivery drone, the Flirtey Eagle. The aircraft designer and manufacturer also unveiled the Flirtey Portal, a sophisticated take off and landing platform that enables scalable store-to-door operations; and an autonomous software platform that enables drones to deliver safely to homes.

[ Flirtey ]


EPFL scientists are developing new approaches for improved control of robotic hands – in particular for amputees – that combines individual finger control and automation for improved grasping and manipulation. This interdisciplinary proof-of-concept between neuroengineering and robotics was successfully tested on three amputees and seven healthy subjects.

[ EPFL ]


This video is a few years old, but we’ll take any excuse to watch the majestic sage-grouse be majestic in all their majesticness.

[ UC Davis ]


I like the idea of a game of soccer (or, football to you weirdos in the rest of the world) where the ball has a mind of its own.

[ Sphero ]


Looks like the whole delivery glider idea is really taking off! Or, you know, not taking off.

Weird that they didn’t show the landing, because it sure looked like it was going to plow into the side of the hill at full speed.

[ Yates ] via [ sUAS News ]


This video is from a 2018 paper, but it’s not like we ever get tired of seeing quadrupeds do stuff, right?

[ MIT ]


Founder and Head of Product, Ian Bernstein, and Head of Engineering, Morgan Bell, have been involved in the Misty project for years and they have learned a thing or two about building robots. Hear how and why Misty evolved into a robot development platform, learn what some of the earliest prototypes did (and why they didn’t work for what we envision), and take a deep dive into the technology decisions that form the Misty II platform.

[ Misty Robotics ]


Lex Fridman interviews Vijay Kumar on the Artifiical Intelligence Podcast.

[ AI Podcast ]


This week’s CMU RI Seminar is from Ross Knepper at Cornell, on Formalizing Teamwork in Human-Robot Interaction.

Robots out in the world today work for people but not with people. Before robots can work closely with ordinary people as part of a human-robot team in a home or office setting, robots need the ability to acquire a new mix of functional and social skills. Working with people requires a shared understanding of the task, capabilities, intentions, and background knowledge. For robots to act jointly as part of a team with people, they must engage in collaborative planning, which involves forming a consensus through an exchange of information about goals, capabilities, and partial plans. Often, much of this information is conveyed through implicit communication. In this talk, I formalize components of teamwork involving collaboration, communication, and representation. I illustrate how these concepts interact in the application of social navigation, which I argue is a first-class example of teamwork. In this setting, participants must avoid collision by legibly conveying intended passing sides via nonverbal cues like path shape. A topological representation using the braid groups enables the robot to reason about a small enumerable set of passing outcomes. I show how implicit communication of topological group plans achieves rapid covergence to a group consensus, and how a robot in the group can deliberately influence the ultimate outcome to maximize joint performance, yielding pedestrian comfort with the robot.

[ CMU RI ]


In this week’s episode of Robots in Depth, Per speaks with Julien Bourgeois about Claytronics, a project from Carnegie Mellon and Intel to develop "programmable matter."

Julien started out as a computer scientist. He was always interested in robotics privately but then had the opportunity to get into micro robots when his lab was merged into the FEMTO-ST Institute. He later worked with Seth Copen Goldstein at Carnegie Mellon on the Claytronics project.

Julien shows an enlarged mock-up of the small robots that make up programmable matter, catoms, and speaks about how they are designed. Currently he is working on a unit that is one centimeter in diameter and he shows us the very small CPU that goes into that model.

[ Robots in Depth ]


La NASA développe une technique visant à éradiquer le paludisme depuis l’espace

Par Frédéric Ballay

En Birmanie, la NASA développe une nouvelle technique de prévision des épidémies de paludisme depuis l'espace. L'émergence de souches résistantes en Asie du Sud-Est menace les efforts déployés au niveau mondial pour éliminer cette maladie mortelle. Pour lutter contre cette menace, la NASA déploie une technologie spatiale pour lutter contre les épidémies avant qu'elles ne se produisent, a déclaré la scientifique Tatiana Loboda à l'AFP.

Cet article La NASA développe une technique visant à éradiquer le paludisme depuis l’espace est apparu en premier sur Pepsnews - Le site des news positives.

Spoken Language Technology Takes on Dementia

Par Kathy Pretz
Image of a woman comforting an elderly gentleman.
Photo: iStockphoto

THE INSTITUTEDementia affects millions of people worldwide. There is no treatment, but an early diagnosis can help patients slow the progress of their symptoms. The condition can affect people’s mental function, behavior, and memory.

Because dementia can cause different patterns of damage to the brain, no single test can determine whether someone has it. Instead, doctors use several screening tools including in-person interviews, questionnaires about daily routines, and drawing assessments. The tests, performed by clinicians and other professionals, are done regularly to check for changes—which can become expensive.

IEEE Fellow Helen Meng, a professor of systems engineering and engineering management at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), is working on a machine-learning platform to helpmake screening more accessible and less expensive. The platform likely will use data analytics, human-computer interaction, and spoken-language technology.

Hong Kong has a large aged population, Meng says, and dementia is on the rise. Although all the region’s citizens are covered by the public health care system, it can take a long time to get an appointment with a specialist, she says, so valuable time can be lost. She is working with other researchers at the university, including many IEEE members, to make assessments accessible through AI, and eventually give people the ability to do self-assessments.

“As a researcher, a lot of our efforts have been focused on advances in existing applications such as high-accuracy speech recognition,” Meng says, “but I want to look into using the technology for new applications such as detecting early signs of dementia. The way to catch dementia early is to do frequent assessments on an individual’s capabilities. If dementia can be detected earlier, intervention can be started sooner.”

ASSESSMENT TESTS

One well-known exam that neurologists perform is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Designed to evaluate short-term memory, language ability, and attention span, it includes activities such as naming animals and drawing components of a clock. As with other such assessments, the Montreal test is still done on paper, and the results are not digitized.

The neurologist interviews patients and asks them to assess their memory and cognitive functions. The patients’ responses might be subjective, varying from day to day even if their abilities don’t.

Meng says machine learning and big data can help make those diagnoses more objective. Artificial intelligence algorithms and other technology could automatically analyze collected data.

In particular, spoken-language technology could be used to assess a person’s cognitive health and emotional state based on their speech.

 “We want to be able to identify spoken-language biomarkers that are indicative of neurocognitive disorders,” Meng says. “The reaction time after a question is asked could be recorded. For example, if there’s a lot of hesitation or pausing, even at millisecond intervals, these could be measured in an objective way using engineering approaches.”

Offering tests on a computer or recording people’s speech while they answer questions via a telephone could help reduce the number of needed visits to the doctor, Meng says. A clinical cognitive expert or neurologist would review the automated assessments.

“We don’t intend for our automated software to make decisions about whether someone has dementia,” she says. “Our objective is not to replace the clinicians. We look at AI as a decision-support tool.”

The project has recently been awarded the theme-based research scheme of Hong Kong’s Research Grants Council.  This is among the highest level of research funding in the region, according to Meng.

Image of Professor Helen Meng speaking during a lecture series at CUHK.
Photo: The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Meng recently spoke on the topic of artificial intelligence and well-being as part of a lecture series at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

COMBINING TWO PASSIONS

Meng, who grew up in Hong Kong, was accepted to medical school as well as MIT’s engineering program. She says she thought it would be a good experience to study abroad, so she attended MIT, where she earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in electrical engineering. She also got a Ph.D. in electrical engineering and computer science there.

She joined the CUHK in 1998 and established its Human-Computer Communications Laboratory the following year. She founded the university’s Stanley Ho Big Data Decision Analytics Research Center in 2013 and serves as one of its directors.

She has collaborated on several biomedical engineering research projects with the doctors at Prince of Wales, the CUHK teaching hospital.

BUSY VOLUNTEER

Meng joined IEEE in 1998, when she was an assistant professor. She served as reviewer and then associate editor for the IEEE Signal Processing Society’s Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing and eventually was elected editor-in-chief of the publication, serving in that capacity from 2009 to 2011. She was a member of the society’s board of governors and its nominations and appointments committee.

“IEEE is a global platform, so there are many ways to participate,” she says. “I’ve made quite a few friends and met colleagues around the world who are experts in their area. It has been a great experience.

“Membership also broadens one’s horizons. Through IEEE’s conferences and publications, you get to look beyond your own area of expertise.”

Meng works to increase the number of women in engineering. She and other women have spoken during the annual IEEE Signal Processing Society conference’s luncheon.

“We make sure that female keynote speakers are invited to conferences, not just men,” she says. “We need more gender diversity.”

Q&A: How Google Implements Code Coverage at Massive Scale

Par Rina Diane Caballar

In software development, a common metric called code coverage measures the percentage of a system’s code that is covered by tests performed prior to deployment. Code coverage is typically measured automatically by a separate software program, or it can be invoked manually from the command line for certain code coverage tools. The results show exactly which lines of code were executed when running a test suite, and could reveal which lines may need further testing. 

Ideally, software development teams aim for 100 percent code coverage. But in reality, this rarely happens because of the different paths a certain code block could take, or the various edge cases that should (or shouldn’t) be considered based on system requirements.

Graph illustrating projects actively using coverage automation.
Illustration: Google
More projects at Google have actively incorporated automated code coverage tools in recent years. 

Measuring code coverage has become common practice for software development and testing teams, but the question of whether this practice actually improves code quality is still up for debate.

Some argue that developers might focus on quantity rather than quality, creating tests just to satisfy the code coverage percentage instead of tests that are robust enough to identify high-risk or critical areas. Others raise concerns about its cost-effectiveness—it takes valuable developer time to review the results and doesn’t necessarily improve test quality. 

For a large organization such as Google—with a code base of one billion lines of code receiving tens of thousands of commits per day and supporting seven programming languages—measuring code coverage can be especially difficult.

A recent study led by Google AI researchers Marko Ivanković and Goran Petrović provides a behind-the-scenes look at the tech giant’s code coverage infrastructure, which consists of four core layers. The bottom layer is a combination of existing code coverage libraries for each programming language, while the middle layers automate and integrate code coverage into the company’s development and build workflows. The top layer deals with visualizing code coverage information using code editors and other custom tools.

As part of the study, Ivanković and Petrović analyzed code coverage adoption rates over a five-year period. They found that despite code coverage not being mandatory at Google, the rate of adoption has grown steadily since 2014. In the first quarter of 2018, more than 90 percent of projects used automated code coverage tools.  

The researchers also collected 512 survey responses from 3,000 randomly chosen Google developers and other employees in non-engineering roles on the usefulness of code coverage. Among the respondents, only 45 percent use code coverage frequently when authoring code changes, while 40 percent use it regularly when conducting code reviews.

Graph illustrating self-reported usefulness of changelist coverage
Illustration: Google
Survey participants at Google rated the usefulness of code coverage when authoring a code change (red), reviewing a code change (blue), and browsing a code change (green).

Ivanković spoke to IEEE Spectrum about the study and the role code coverage plays in software development and testing.

This interview has been edited and condensed for clarity.

IEEE Spectrum: Why do you think code coverage is important?

Marko Ivanković: A lot of people are probably expecting us to say something along the lines of, “Good coverage reduces [the] number of bugs.” That’s certainly part of it, but one of the more surprising insights [we found] was that even if coverage wasn’t directly helpful as a quality signal, it would still be worth computing.

Coverage might not directly be helpful for humans looking at the code, but it would still be helpful for tools—for example, a tool that analyzes dependencies. So for instance, if code A declares that it depends on code B, but tests for code A never reach code B, then it’s possible that the dependency is not real, and an automated tool can try to remove it to simplify the code base.

Of course, actual implementation is much more complex than that. We’ve found dozens of such tools that can use coverage information provided by our infrastructure to improve their own functionality. And for many of these use cases, the correlation between code coverage and code quality is not at all important.

IEEE Spectrum: What inspired you to study code coverage at Google?

Ivanković: We were inspired by a problem we faced ourselves. During code reviews, we were spending a lot of time trying to figure out if the tests actually test the code or not. At the time, coverage computation was supported by the build system, but you had to manually invoke it and manually overlay the coverage results and the code you were reviewing. One day, we just said to ourselves, “There has to be a way to automate this.” After a week, we had the first prototype running. Other engineers saw it and asked if they could get the same. We wanted to make sure we were providing them with the best possible experience so we started researching the problem.

IEEE Spectrum: What surprised you most about your results?

Ivanković: We were surprised by the number of people who were originally skeptical of coverage that ended up adopting the methodology and ultimately finding it useful. A number of people we surveyed were against coverage on principle, but they still admitted to using it sometimes and finding it useful. 

IEEE Spectrum: What's the biggest challenge you faced with your study, and how did you overcome it? 

Ivanković: On the surface, code coverage appears to be a simple concept: A line is either covered by tests or it isn’t. But it turned out to be full of corner cases and unexpected situations when implemented at scale. It took us several years of hard work to fix all failure modes in the infrastructure. 

We hit a similar challenge when we were conducting our study. Most engineers we surveyed had the same overall idea of what coverage is, but when asked for details, their responses differed widely. We had to try several surveys on smaller populations before we got the questions right. 

IEEE Spectrum: What do you see as the strengths of Google's code coverage infrastructure? What else do you think could be improved?

Ivanković: We worked hard to make sure the infrastructure is resource-efficient and can run at Google’s massive scale. Showing people that it’s possible to do this is probably the biggest contribution [of our study]. 

We designed our infrastructure in a way that makes it easy to experiment, do A/B testing, and evaluate hypotheses. We also export all data in accessible formats so coverage can be visualized, which helps teams keep their code healthy and prepare fix-it events.

When we were surveying engineers, some of them had improvement suggestions for us, some of which could be interesting to explore. One of the more playful ones was to not show the coverage results if they were too good, so the engineers don’t get overconfident.

IEEE Spectrum: What advice would you give software development and testing teams looking to deploy code coverage or improve their existing code coverage efforts?

Ivanković: I think the most important advice we could give is to focus on their workflow. Don’t just deploy coverage, but make sure you integrate it in the developer workflow at the right place, where the results are most useful. In our experience, code review is the cornerstone of code health.

IEEE Spectrum: What future developments are in store for Google’s code coverage infrastructure?

Ivanković: Currently, we’re looking further into the usage data and developer opinions to better understand how coverage is used. For example, we’re researching how the perceived usefulness differs from actual usefulness. A concrete question we would like to examine is, “Does showing coverage during code review actually speed up the review process?” The results of this research will determine our next infrastructure improvements.

EuroVelo 3 : traverser la Belgique à vélo au fil de l’eau

Par Mila Colas

Mila et Denni arrivent en Belgique sur le parcours de l’EuroVelo 3. C’est désormais le 5ème pays de la traversée Norvège - Espagne à vélo !

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Ours Mischa : la ministre de l’Écologie impose l’arrêt des spectacles

Par Mathilde Sallé de Chou

Bonne nouvelle, la Ministre de la Transition écologique et solidaire vient de l'annoncer : l'ours Mischa va enfin prendre sa retraite.

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Dépendance : bientôt un congé indemnisé pour les proches aidants

Par Mathilde Sallé de Chou

Pour soutenir les proches aidants, le gouvernement va prochainement mettre en place une indemnité d’environ 40 euros net par jour.

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Personnalités et ONG demandent un « ministère de la protection animale »

Par Mathilde Sallé de Chou

Dans une tribune publiée dans Libération jeudi 12 septembre, ONG et personnalités militent pour la création d'un ministère de la protection animale.

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Attitude d’un catholique face au sionisme

Par Réponses catholiques

Quelle doit être la position d’un catholique face au sionisme ? Aussi, la création de l’État d’Israël en 1948 est-elle accord avec les prophéties bibliques, annonçant le retour de Jésus comme Christ en gloire de l’Apocalypse, comme le pensent la plupart des chrétiens évangéliques ? (Les évangéliques considèrent -en tout cas en grande majorité- que l’existence même de l’État d’Israël ramènera Jésus sur terre, le fera définitivement reconnaître comme Messie et assurera le triomphe de Dieu sur les forces du mal, pendant que le peuple juif se convertira au christianisme). Ceci dit, je connais la déclaration de Jérusalem sur le sionisme chrétien, signée notamment par le patriarche latin de Jérusalem, Mgr Michel Sabbah, mais cette déclaration condamne sans apporter de réelles réponses. Je sais également la singularité qu’a le peuple Juifs dans la Révélation de l’Écriture-Sainte par l’Alliance éternelle entre Dieu et le peuple Juif, dans ce cas, quelle est sa place actuelle ? Le Judaïsme est-il alors, une voie possible d’obtenir le salut ? Comment devons nous considérer nos frères aînés ? Que doit-on leur répondre quand il nous interroge sur la position catholique sur Israël, comme étant la Terre-Sainte qui appartient aux Juifs ? Et sur notre position concernant la Palestine ? (le Vatican reconnaissant d’ailleurs ces deux États). Merci pour votre travail et votre prochaine réponse.

Savoir si la Création de l’Etat d’Israël est en accord avec les prophéties bibliques est un sujet débattu entre juifs eux-mêmes, puisque de nombreux groupes ultra-orthodoxes considèrent que c’est un régime impie et le refusent, allant jusqu’à refuser de servir dans l’armée ou même d’envoyer des courriers avec un timbre de l’Etat d’Israël. Le débat n’est donc pas simple.

On ne voit pas en quoi son existence annonçerait le retour du Christ. Ca n’a tout simplement rien à voir. Les prophéties messianiques annoncent la convergence des nations vers Sion, cela ne dit rien du régime politique à Sion même. Qu’il soit israélien – pourquoi pas – ou non.

La position du St Siège est donc plus cohérente : droit à l’autodétermination des deux peuples, israélien et palestinien, au besoin – mais ce n’est pas une obligation, d’autres solutions auraient pu être envisagées – via la création de deux états souverains. Quant aux lieux saints, ils devraient être accessibles à tous les croyants et gérés par une force internationale. Voilà qui reflète davantage Isaïe 60.

Ce qui nous fait glisser du sujet politique au sujet théologique. St Jean Paul II a rappelé que si la Terre est sainte pour les Juifs et les chrétiens – laissons de côté la question de l’Islam – elle n’a été promise qu’aux Juifs. Cela valide théologiquement le droit des Juifs d’avoir un foyer et celui à l’existence de l’Etat d’Israël. La Déclaration du Concile de Vatican II Nostra Aetate, actualise des arguments théologiques très anciens : la permanence de la Dignitas Israelis (Concile de Trente) est le signe que Dieu ne revient jamais sur ses promesses, ni son Alliance. Le Peuple juif en est toujours bénéficiaire. Comment « considérer nos frères aînés » ? Comme des frères, justement… Y compris en ne mettant pas en avant les sujets de conflit, comme dans n’importe quelle fratrie. C’est-à-dire sans insister trop, dans le dialogue judéo-chrétien, sur leur ainesse. Les Juifs actuels réfutent justement cette idée d’antériorité et de chronologie. Pour eux, les deux religions se sont développées en parallèle. On n’est pas obligé de les croire mais il faut les entendre si l’on veut avoir un vrai dialogue avec eux.

Ce n’est pas la même chose que de dire que le judaïsme serait une voie de salut. Les Juifs sont toujours héritiers de l’Alliance au Sinaï et des promesses faites à Abraham. Pour autant, celui qui les accomplit, c’est Jésus-Christ. Nous, chrétiens, affirmons qu’Il est la seule façon d’interpréter et de vivre la Loi dans sa plénitude. Toutes les autres versions ne sont que tronquées.

Pour le dire autrement, les Juifs bénéficient toujours de la Loi de Moïse. Mais elle n’est vraiment appliquée qu’à travers les Béatitudes.

Pèlerinage de l’Institut du Christ Roi à Cotignac

Par Summorum Pontificum
Pèlerinage de l’Institut du Christ Roi à Cotignac
L’Institut du Christ Roi propose un Pèlerinage pour la France le 5 octobre de Correns à Cotignac. Départ des apostolat de l’Institut dans le sud de la France (Nîmes, Montpellier…). Institut du Christ Roi

PMA/GPA : Mgr Le Saux nous invite à manifester notre opinion

Par Maximilien Bernard
PMA/GPA : Mgr Le Saux nous invite à manifester notre opinion
De Mgr Le Saux, évêque du Mans : Dans les semaines à venir, notre pays va être traversé par les débats autour de la procréation médicalement assistée (P.M.A) et la gestation pour autrui (G.P.A) Il ne s’agit pas d’abord de débats d’opinion mais de questions extrêmement fondamentales qui ont toutes en commun la recherche de…

Chiot bruyant abattu par un chasseur en Ardèche : la pétition fait un carton

Par Mathilde Sallé de Chou

Sur internet la pétition demandant justice pour Kinder, le chiot assassiné par un chasseur, récolte plus de 69 000 signatures

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Les dangers du sexting expliqués en dessins

Par Axel Leclercq

Il suffit qu'une seule photo tombe entre de mauvaises mains.... Cette bande dessinée invite les jeunes à réfléchir et, s'il est trop tard, à réagir.

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« Qu’est-ce qu’un mec bien ? » L’historien Ivan Jablonka s’interroge

Par Axel Leclercq

Suite au mouvement #MeToo, une question qui aurait dû être posée depuis longtemps s'impose enfin : qu'est-ce qu'un homme bien ? Reste à trouver la réponse.

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Lyon : Saint-Bonaventure devient une basilique

Par Maximilien Bernard
Lyon : Saint-Bonaventure devient une basilique
À la demande du cardinal Barbarin, le pape François a décidé d’accorder le titre et la dignité de Basilique Mineure au sanctuaire Saint-Bonaventure. C’est avec grande joie que sera fêté ce titre honorifique le samedi 28 septembre, à la messe de 16h, présidée par Mgr Michel Dubost. Le père Rollin, recteur de Saint-Bonaventure, déclare :…

1.2 millions d’euros: le prix de la liberté pour les derniers éléphants de cirque payé par le Danemark

Par Alexandre Gras

En fin d'année 2019, l'emploi des animaux sauvages dans les cirques sera interdit au Danemark. C'est en prévision de cet acte que l'état danois a choisi d'offrir une retraite bien méritée aux éléphants. Ramboline, Djunga, Lara et Jenny peuvent désormais profiter pleinement de leurs libertés.

Cet article 1.2 millions d’euros: le prix de la liberté pour les derniers éléphants de cirque payé par le Danemark est apparu en premier sur Pepsnews - Le site des news positives.

Water Jet Powered Drone Takes Off With Explosions

Par Evan Ackerman

At ICRA 2015, the Aerial Robotics Lab at the Imperial College London presented a concept for a multimodal flying swimming robot called AquaMAV. The really difficult thing about a flying and swimming robot isn’t so much the transition from the first to the second, since you can manage that even if your robot is completely dead (thanks to gravity), but rather the other way: going from water to air, ideally in a stable and repetitive way. The AquaMAV concept solved this by basically just applying as much concentrated power as possible to the problem, using a jet thruster to hurl the robot out of the water with quite a bit of velocity to spare.

In a paper appearing in Science Robotics this week, the roboticists behind AquaMAV present a fully operational robot that uses a solid-fuel powered chemical reaction to generate an explosion that powers the robot into the air.

The 2015 version of AquaMAV, which was mostly just some very vintage-looking computer renderings and a little bit of hardware, used a small cylinder of CO2 to power its water jet thruster. This worked pretty well, but the mass and complexity of the storage and release mechanism for the compressed gas wasn’t all that practical for a flying robot designed for long-term autonomy. It’s a familiar challenge, especially for pneumatically powered soft robots—how do you efficiently generate gas on-demand, especially if you need a lot of pressure all at once?

An explosion propels the drone out of the water

There’s one obvious way of generating large amounts of pressurized gas all at once, and that’s explosions. We’ve seen robots use explosive thrust for mobility before, at a variety of scales, and it’s very effective as long as you can both properly harness the explosion and generate the fuel with a minimum of fuss, and this latest version of AquaMAV manages to do both:

The water jet coming out the back of this robot aircraft is being propelled by a gas explosion. The gas comes from the reaction between a little bit of calcium carbide powder stored inside the robot, and water. Water is mixed with the powder one drop at a time, producing acetylene gas, which gets piped into a combustion chamber along with air and water. When ignited, the acetylene air mixture explodes, forcing the water out of the combustion chamber and providing up to 51 N of thrust, which is enough to launch the 160-gram robot 26 meters up and over the water at 11 m/s. It takes just 50 mg of calcium carbide (mixed with 3 drops of water) to generate enough acetylene for each explosion, and both air and water are of course readily available. With 0.2 g of calcium carbide powder on board, the robot has enough fuel for multiple jumps, and the jump is powerful enough that the robot can get airborne even under fairly aggressive sea conditions.

Water-air hybrid MAV
Image: Science Robotics
The robot can transition from a floating state to an airborne jetting phase and back to floating (A). A 3D model render of the underside of the robot (B) shows the electronics capsule. The capsule contains the fuel tank (C), where calcium carbide reacts with air and water to propel the vehicle.

Next step: getting the robot to fly autonomously

Providing adequate thrust is just one problem that needs to be solved when attempting to conquer the water-air transition with a fixed-wing robot. The overall design of the robot itself is a challenge as well, because the optimal design and balance for the robot is quite different in each phase of operation, as the paper describes:

For the vehicle to fly in a stable manner during the jetting phase, the center of mass must be a significant distance in front of the center of pressure of the vehicle. However, to maintain a stable floating position on the water surface and the desired angle during jetting, the center of mass must be located behind the center of buoyancy. For the gliding phase, a fine balance between the center of mass and the center of pressure must be struck to achieve static longitudinal flight stability passively. During gliding, the center of mass should be slightly forward from the wing’s center of pressure. 

The current version is mostly optimized for the jetting phase of flight, and doesn’t have any active flight control surfaces yet, but the researchers are optimistic that if they added some they’d have no problem getting the robot to fly autonomously. It’s just a glider at the moment, but a low-power propeller is the obvious step after that, and to get really fancy, a switchable gearbox could enable efficient movement on water as well as in the air. Long-term, the idea is that robots like these would be useful for tasks like autonomous water sampling over large areas, but I’d personally be satisfied with a remote controlled version that I could take to the beach.

“Consecutive aquatic jump-gliding with water-reactive fuel,” by R. Zufferey, A. Ortega Ancel, A. Farinha, R. Siddall, S. F. Armanini, M. Nasr, R. V. Brahmal, G. Kennedy, and M. Kovac from Imperial College in London, is published in the current issue of Science Robotics.

Mort d’un enfant : accroc au boulot, un papa endeuillé réalisé ce qu’il a raté

Par Axel Leclercq

Il a fallu que son enfant meure pour réaliser à côté de quoi il était passé. Alors, pour éviter que d'autres parents n'aient à vivre ça, il témoigne...

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Pourquoi dit-on « Mi-figue, mi-raisin » ?

Par sophie

À partir de 1487, on disait déjà d’une personne qu’elle était « moitié figue, moitié raisin » pour faire comprendre qu’elle avait à la fois du bon et du mauvais en elle.

Le bon était symbolisé par le raisin et le mauvais, par la figue.

Cette dernière a toujours eu une connotation négative parce qu’elle était très bon marché ou, selon d’autres linguistes, parce qu’elle ressemble à une fiente animale.

Figue et raisin étaient souvent associés car ils faisaient partie des rares fruits secs que les chrétiens pouvaient manger lors du Carême.

L’emploi de « mi » à la place de « moitié » daterait du XVIIIe siècle.

Conseil du JDBN: Mangez 5 fruits et légumes par jour, sauf la pastèque… vous pourriez décéder d’un coma hydraulique!

Source – crédit photo: pixabay

Le livre qui a inspiré le film “Le secret”

Par sophie

Un merveilleux guide pour obtenir tout ce que vous désirez dans la vie.

The Master Key System (La clé de la maîtrise) est une présentation unique en 24 leçons du pouvoir créateur de la pensée. Il enseigne les principes ultimes, les causes, les effets et les lois qui sous-tendent tout accomplissement et tout succès. Il fut l’inspiration pour le film «Le Secret».

La clé de la maîtrise. Charles F-Haanel

Lien d’achat

Pour celles et ceux qui n’ont pas lu le Secret, voici le documentaire complet en français:

Ouvrages recommandés par le JDBN:

Produits disponibles sur Amazon.fr

Source: JDBN – crédit photo: capture

 

Les 5 préceptes du Reiki par Mikao Usui.

Par sophie

Ça a l’air simple… mais si tout le monde appliquait ses 5 préceptes, imaginez dans quel paradis nous pourrions vivre?

A méditez.

A coller sur le frigo.

A apprendre par coeur.

Et surtout surtout… ne pas se mettre la pression et essayer jour après jour de s’approcher de cette sagesse.

Chacun son rythme. No stress. Pas de jugement. Amen!

Les 5 préceptes du Reiki par Mikao Usui:

Kyo dake wa:

Juste pour aujourd’hui

 

Okura na:

Ne te mets pas en colère

 

Shinpai su na:

Ne te fais pas de souci

 

Kansha shite:

Sois rempli de gratitude

 

Gyo wô hageme:

Travaille dur et honnêtement

 

Hito ni shinsetsu ni:

Sois gentil envers tout ce qui vit.

 

Mikao Usui.

220px-Mikaousui

Recommandé par le JDBN:

Source: JDBN – crédit photo: pixabay

China’s Grid Architect Proposes a “Made in China” Upgrade to North America’s Power System

Par Peter Fairley

Transmission lines in the United States and Canada require approval from every state and province traversed, and that political fragmentation hinders deployment of long power links of the type connecting vast swaths of territory in regions such as China, India, and Brazil. As a result, few studies detail how technologies that efficiently move power over thousands of kilometers, such as ultrahigh-voltage direct current (UHV DC) systems, might perform in North America. Earlier this week, the Beijing-based Global Energy Interconnection Development and Cooperation Organization (GEIDCO) stepped in to fill that gap, outlining an ambitious upgrade for North America’s grids.

GEIDCO’s plan promises to greatly shrink North America’s carbon footprint, but its boldest prescriptions represent technical and economic optimizations that run counter to political interests and recent trends. “Thinking out of the box is how you solve complicated, difficult problems,” said former Southern California Edison CEO Ted Craver in response to the plan. But GEIDCO’s approach, he said, raises concerns about energy sovereignty that could prove difficult to settle. As Craver put it: “There’s theory and then there’s practice.”

The proposed North American transmission scheme was unveiled on Tuesday at an international transmission forum in Vancouver, Canada, by Liu Zhenya, the former State Grid Corp. of China chairman who launched GEIDCO in 2016. While at State Grid, Liu championed the development of the world’s first 800- and 1,100-kilovolt UHV DC lines and the first 1,000-kV, UHV AC transmission. State Grid has deployed them to create a brawny hybrid AC-DC electricity system that taps far-flung energy resources to power China’s densely-populated and industrialized seaboard.

Through GEIDCO, Liu is proselytizing for UHV deployment worldwide. At the Vancouver meeting, Liu warned of “unimaginable damage to mankind” if greenhouse gas emissions continued at their current pace. He argued that beefy grids moving power across and between continents are a prerequisite for accessing and sharing the world’s best wind, solar, and hydropower resources, and thus dialing-down fossil fuel consumption.

GEIDCO’s plan for North America mirrors the combination of UHV AC and DC transmission deployed by State Grid in China. In that scheme, a series of 800-kV UHV DC lines running east to west across the U.S. would share wind and solar power widely, while north-south lines would provide continent-wide access to Canada’s giant hydropower plants [see map below]. One more UHV DC line—a 5,200-kilometer stretch from Mexico to Peru—would enable power exchanges with South America.

As in China, UHV AC lines would be added atop North America’s five existing AC grids, strengthening them so they could safely absorb the 8-gigawatt output of each DC line. In two cases, UHV AC would eventually cross boundaries between distinct AC grids to create larger and more stable synchronous zones: Mexico’s grid would fold into the larger grid that currently covers the Western U.S. and Canada; and Texas’ grid would merge with North America’s big Eastern grid.

Consolidating grids helps explain the benefit of GEIDCO’s plan. Texas’ grid is only weakly linked to its neighbors at present, which limits its ability to share resources such as extra wind power that may go to waste for lack of in-state demand or to important renewable power when its wind farms are still. GEIDCO’s UHV build-out unlocks such resources by enabling each power plant to serve a larger area.

The payoffs are numerous. Electrification to decarbonize vehicles, home heating, and industries would proceed 60 percent faster than the most ambitious U.S. electrification scenarios projected by the Electric Power Research Institute. Renewable energy installation would also accelerate, pushing the share of zero-carbon energy on the continent from 40 percent of the power supply in 2017, to 64 percent in 2035, and 74 percent in 2050. Nuclear energy’s contribution would fall by nearly half to just 11 percent of generation in 2050—mostly due to its higher cost, according to GEIDCO director of energy planning Gao Yi. Overall, energy-related greenhouse gas emissions would drop 80 percent by 2050, relative to a business-as-usual scenario—even as average power generating costs drop.

Ultrahigh-voltage grid expansions proposed by GEIDCO through 2035 (left) and 2050 (right) 
Images: GEIDCO
Ultrahigh-voltage grid expansions proposed by GEIDCO through 2035 (left) and 2050 (right).

However, consolidating grids is also where the political sensitivity begins. Texas fiercely guards its independent AC grid, which shields its power industry from oversight by federal regulators. Craver’s take on the prospects for bringing Texas into the fold: “Good luck on that.”

Broader political concerns, meanwhile, could hold up international UHV links. Deeper integration of power supplies across borders implies a high level of trust between nations. That cuts against the recent trend toward populist governments advocating more nationalist agendas, as exemplified by the U.K.’s ongoing effort to leave the European Union.

A populist Mexican President elected last year has blocked international investment in renewable energy and could undo recent efforts to expand the country’s grid interconnections. U.S. President Trump has decreased trust in the United States as an international partner with his America-first trade policies and plans to withdraw the U.S. from global pacts such as the Paris Agreement on Climate Change.

At the Vancouver forum, organized by the Edison Electric Institute, a Washington-based trade group, most grid experts identified politics and social acceptance as the greatest challenges to power network expansion. In the U.S., climate and energy policy has made it more difficult for government researchers to even study North American grid integration.

Last year, political appointees at the U.S. Department of Energy blocked publication of a modeling study exploring integration of the Eastern and Western grids via DC lines. The study, led by the grid modeling group at the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) in Boulder, Colo., projected that long DC lines linking the grids would reduce power costs and accelerate renewable energy development. According to the study’s leader, it showed that “building national-scale transmission makes sense.”

NREL’s grid modelers are now wrapping up a larger continent-wide study looking at the challenges and opportunities for grid integration of very large levels of wind, solar and hydropower. That North American Renewable Integration Study is a collaborative effort by the U.S., Mexican, and Canadian governments. It was supposed to be completed this month, but remains under review by the three governments.

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